The Arthur–Pieman Conservation Area is relatively untouched land located on the north-west coast of Tasmania. Extensive parts of the area are listed on the Register of the National Estate and nearly half of the Tasmanian coastal migration route and several key feeding sites are within the area.
An area of 97 250 ha was reserved a Protected Area in 1982. Following the Regional Forest Agreement in 1999, the area was re-classified as a Conservation Area and its area increased to 100 135 ha.
The Conservation Area provides protection to an extraordinary richness of Aboriginal cultural heritage, highly significant and diverse ecosystems, spectacular coastal landscapes and wilderness values.
The area contains several surviving historic sites, including remnants of the Balfour-Temma tramway and the Sandy Cape lighthouse.
The Ben Lomond National Park is located in north east Tasmania, covering an area of 16 456 ha. Ben Lomond was named by Colonel Patterson (the founder of the first northern Tasmanian settlement) in 1807.
In 1934, 22 864 ha were set aside as a Sanctuary for Ben Lomond’s unique animal and bird life and in 1947 the area was increased to near its current size to reflect its scenic importance. The Park is an invaluable reserve for the conservation of the flora community and species diversity of Tasmania’s alpine areas.
The Park is also the main focus of downhill skiing in Tasmania which commenced in the early 1930’s.
The Ben Lomond Skifield Development Plan identifies a management zone primarily for downhill skiing within the Ben Lomond National Park in north east Tasmania.
Between 1982 and 2006 the zone was managed by the Ben Lomond Skifield Management Authority, however this has reverted to Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service. The Plan provides an integrated, long-term approach to year round ski slope improvement and management, to minimise the impacts on the natural, cultural and landscape values for the next 25 years.
The ski slopes are one hour from Launceston and just over three hours from Hobart by car. The ski slopes are relatively small and marginal, with limited gentle smooth terrain suited to beginner, novice and low intermediate skier. Natural obstacles abound.
Although visitors come for a variety of recreational, social and educational activities, skiing and snowboarding are still the main focus and most visitation occurs during the snow season.
The Cave Access Policy provides a classification and cave zoning system and defines a process to classify caves managed under the National Parks and Reserves Management Act 2002 in order to protect karst values. In guiding the appropriate use and management of those caves, the Policy establishes a system of permit controls and conditions over caves subject to high levels of recreational use.
The Policy also recognises that the caves may be of special significance to Aboriginal people and thus it would not affect Aboriginal people’s access to caves for cultural purposes.
This reserve is situated in the D’Entrecasteaux Channel about 25 kms south of Hobart, covering an area of 491.837 ha.
It became a Regional Park in 1975 and then a State Recreation Area in July 1979. In April 1999 it was converted to a Nature Recreation Area as part of the Regional Forest Agreement. The area is also listed in the Kingborough Planning Scheme Heritage Schedule.
The reserve has significant flora values and provides habitat for a number of threatened species. The area is also highly valued by the Tasmanian Aboriginal community as it provides evidence of occupation and use.
As a recreation area, it provides opportunities for a range of recreational pursuits for the local residents. The reserve is cared for by two community groups which have dedicated much time and resources to restoring the reserve’s vegetation.
Cynthia Bay is located at the southernmost end of Lake St. Clair and as such it sits within the World Heritage Area (WHA). It receives over 110 000 visitors a year and is one of the two approved site plans within the established Visitor Services Zone Plans for the WHA.
The original site plan was approved in 1993. This site plan extends the knowledge base of Cynthia Bay and its values and guides long term development of the area.
Cynthia Bay has a number of special values, including Cynthia Bay till (formed by the areas unique geomorphology and soil) which is of international geoconservation significance. The morphology of the lake’s area in general is also considered of some significance as it reflects the extent of modification of Tasmania’s alpine areas during the Pleistocence glaciation.
The area also contains a number of aboriginal artefact scatter sites and has special significance for scientists as the taxonomic type locality for many invertebrate species.
The Douglas-Apsley National Park was declared a Park in December 1989 following public concern raised in 1970 about the large scale clearing of Tasmania’s dry sclerophyll forest for agriculture and for the export woodchip industry.
The Park is located between Bicheno and St Marys and protects the last large untouched area of dry sclerophyll forest along the east coast of Tasmania and one of the few Tasmanian habitats of the rare fish, the Australian grayling. It is a unique representative repository of a diverse range of plant species and communities of considerable conservation importance.
In 1989 most of the Park was listed on the Register of the National Estate and in 1990, three of its trees were registered on the National Trust of Australia Significant Tree Register.
In 1978 a joint exploration venture identified that a significant part of the area is underlain by confirmed steaming coal reserves which amount to approximately 36% of the State’s coal reserves and would be suitable for power generation.
The Egg Islands consist of two estuarine islands covering a combined 443 ha. Almost two-thirds is publicly-owned land acquired in 1975; one-third is managed by the Tasmanian Land Conservancy (TLC) acquired in 2007 and 25 ha is freehold title which is not included in the management plan. A conservation covenant has been placed over the TLC portion.
The Egg Islands are a relatively recent landform having been created by the accumulation of fine sediment in the lower reaches of the Huon River. They are considered to be the most important and least disturbed of this class of estuarine depositional landform in Tasmania, and they are still growing with expansion of the mud flats in the south.
Most of the Egg Islands are in a natural or near-natural condition and incorporate significant nature conservation values, providing valuable habitat for a range of fauna, especially waterbirds. The northern sections support a rare and endangered Eucalyptus ovata forest and woodland (the largest remnant in south-east Tasmania).
This report presents Tasmania’s innovative statewide management effectiveness monitoring and reporting system for Tasmania‘s national parks and reserves managed by the Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service under the National Parks and Reserves Management Act 2002.
This report examines the performance of fire management in the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area (TWWHA) and concludes that the Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service is applying allocated resources wisely and without wastage. Nonetheless fire management continues to be a particularly challenging and uncertain area for management.
Over the period since 2004, there have been no deaths or injuries as a result of fire in the TWWHA, and only minor losses of built assets (such as track infrastructure). Small areas of fire-sensitive vegetation burnt and some forest peats were lost. Major advances were made in bushfire risk management capability as a result of the Bushfire Risk Assessment Model, and fire planning and operational procedures also improved. There is some indication that lightning-caused fires may be on the increase, and there are ongoing concerns that the risk of landscape-scale fires continues to pose a serious threat to the TWWHA, particularly to fire-sensitive vegetation.
This report examines the effectiveness of a collaborative project between the Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service and a community volunteer group (Wildcare SPRATS) to eradicate the invasive weed sea spurge from Tasmania’s remote southwest wilderness coastline.
The evaluation concludes that the project performed outstandingly well in achieving its objectives with all infested sites along 600 km of coastline now weeded. Maintaining Tasmania’s wilderness coastline free of sea spurge is considered feasible and likely with only low levels of ongoing surveillance and maintenance. This project demonstrates a successful model of government/community partnership which has delivered important environmental outcomes that would have been beyond the capacity of the management agency without capable and committed volunteers.
A Fly Neighbourly Advice (FNA) is a voluntary code of practice negotiated between aircraft operators and communities or authorities that have an interest in reducing the disturbance caused by aircraft within a particular area.
This FNA is the result of an understanding between locally-based scenic flight and charter operators and the Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service to operate above the World Heritage Area and Mount Field National Park in an agreed responsible manner.
FN 7 complements the mandatory aviation operating and safety regulations and air traffic management procedures applicable to the area.
Fortescue Bay is situated on the east coast of the Tasman Peninsula within the Tasman National Park. The Site Plan provides a framework for conservation management and sustainable visitor and tourism use within the Fortescue Bay Visitor Services Zone (VSZ).
Fortescue Bay is currently a low-key destination for car−based day visitors and overnight or extended stay campers. The area caters for bushwalkers using the Tasman Coastal Track (one of the 8 Great Bushwalks of Tasmania).
The region contains a great diversity of habits that support rich and varied wildlife and birdlife. The vegetation has excellent examples of coastal heath, scrub, fern gullies and forest, many of which have a high priority for conservation.
The region has a long history of timber extraction and milling in and adjacent to the VSZ. The immediate area now occupied by the campground, along with the beach, are considered to have high cultural sensitivity with several shell middens, isolated stone artefacts and stone artefact scatters.
Freycinet National Park (16,803 ha) is located on the east coast of Tasmania, stretching from Bicheno to Schouten Island. It is one of the oldest national parks in Tasmania. The Wye River State Reserve (2,682 ha) lies about 3 km to the east of Lake Leake.
This Management Plan was altered for specific reasons in 2004 and 2016. This Plan should be read in conjunction with these two alterations.
The Freycinet Peninsula and Schouten Island were first proclaimed game preserves in January 1906 and then Scenic Reserves in 1916. The Friendly Beaches were included in 1992.
The Park is popular for tourists and locals alike, known for its scenic beauty, accessibility, pleasant weather and wide range of recreational opportunities.
The region contains geoconservation and natural values with a variety of landscape, vegetation communities and fauna and a strong cultural heritage value.
Wye River State Reserve, combines the former Bluemans Creek State Reserve and Wye River-Bluemans Creek State Reserve. It was reserved in May 2000 to protect forest communities and threatened flora species.
This Plan alters specific areas of the Freycinet National Park, Wye River State Reserve Management Plan 2000 to:
• provide for construction and operation of extended potable water storage capacity in the Middleton Creek Tinfield area; and
• to redevelop the Wineglass Bay look out track.
It should be read in conjunction with the 2000 Plan.
This Plan alters the Freycinet National Park, Wye River State Reserve Management Plans 2000 and 2016 by removing the provision that restricts an increase in accommodation beyond the existing capacity on the Freycinet Lodge lease. The leased area has not been amended.
This change is in line with the Tasmanian Government’s policy of realising the potential of Tasmania’s natural areas by broadening the range of exciting and unique tourism experiences on offer in Tasmania’s national parks.
This Plan should be read in conjunction with the 2000 and 2004 Plans.
The Hartz Mountain National Park is one of the key icon tourist attractions in the Huon area, along with the Tahune Airwalk, Hastings Caves and Cockle Creek. The Park is located about 85 km south of Hobart and 21 km south-west of Geeveston.
This plan covers development and upgrading of facilities within the Hartz Mountains Visitor Services Site, in particular at the Devils Backbone precinct.
The Park has diverse vegetation values and contain significant areas of alpine communities, sub-alpine woodland, rainforest and wet eucalypt forest. It is estimated that about 60 per cent of Tasmania's native land animals and over forty species of birds are found there. The Hartz Mountains area and surrounding forests continues to have significance for today's Tasmanian Aboriginal community as well as being an early example of regional European settlement.
The Hartz Mountains are one of Tasmania's earliest popular bushwalking destinations.
The Kent Group National Park was established in 2004. Named after the captain of the first fleet vessel Supply, the Kent Group is an archipelago of five main islands and associated off-shore rocks with a total area of 2,374 hectares.
Being isolated from mainland Tasmania on the northern side of Bass Strait, many of the smaller islands are rarely visited and are natural conservation and breeding habitats for seals and seabirds.
The islands have known sites of geoconservation significance and important natural and cultural landscape values, associated with remoteness and isolation. They are also biogeographically significant for the transition of floras between the mainland and Tasmania.
Several sites of Aboriginal occupation are of particularly importance in developing an understanding of the settlement of Tasmania by the Aboriginal people.
The Deal Island Lightstation is one of the most important lightstations in Australia. It is on the Register of the National Estate and the Tasmanian Heritage Register.
The Lake Johnston Nature Reserve, just south of Rosebery in western Tasmania, is reserved because it contains rainforest communities of conservation significance, notably subalpine patches of Huon pine, believed to derive from trees present on the site for over 10 000 years. Because of its conservation significance, access is restricted to scientific or management personnel, licenced tour groups and approved special interest groups.
Lake Johnston Nature Reserve (138 ha) lies 8 km south of Rosebery in central western Tasmania. The proposal to reserve the area was a recommendation of the 1997 Interim Management Plan for the Mt Read mining area.
The Reserve contains a number of rainforest communities which are considered to be of biogeographic significance in terms of their species composition, biodiversity and structural forms.
The area is part of a major stronghold of the rare restricted endemic Orites milliganii, and also contains a significant population of the endemic conifer Cheshunt pine Diselma archeri in its rare arboreal form, including the largest and possibly oldest specimens recorded.
At least seven of the Tasmanian endemic pine species occur in the Reserve. The area lies within the biggest single patch of deciduous beech Nothofagus gunnii in Tasmania.
The Reserve may also contain features of Aboriginal and historic heritage value.
The principal objective of management is to protect the values of the Reserve, and to provide for controlled, limited access by visitors interested in those values.
The Gordon River is located on the west coast of Tasmania near Strahan. The lower Gordon River, in particular the approximately 40 km of navigable, tidally influenced reaches downstream from Big Eddy, is the only Australia river with levee bank and flood basin deposits in a cool temperate rainforest environment. The river banks support a high diversity of fauna including a significant proportion of Tasmania’s endemic species and subspecies.
The region is an important tourist destination and has significant heritage values.
Part of the lower Gordon River area was first reserved in 1908. In 1939 it became the Gordon River Scenic Reserve and in 1981 it was incorporated into the Franklin - Gordon Wild Rivers National Park. A year later the Park was included in the Western Tasmania Wilderness World Heritage Area (WHA), later expanded to the Tasmanian Wilderness WHA to include most of the remaining, then-unreserved lower Gordon catchment.
This plan manages the recreation zone to ensure access is consistent with environmental protection and recreational values.
The Lower Gordon River Recreation Zone extends from the mouth of the Gordon River at the boundary of the Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park, upstream to 200 metres above its confluence with the Franklin River, a distance of approximately 42 kilometres.
Both the Background Report and the Lower Gordon River Recreation Zone Plan will be used by the Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service in managing the area and informing communities about the values of the river and why it is managed the way it is.
The Draft Recreation Zone Plan for the Lower Gordon River – Future Management 2022 (draft RZP) was released for a six-week public comment on Friday 4 February 2022. The comment period closed on 21 March 2022. This report summarises the breadth of submissions received, the central themes that were raised together with a response as it relates to any changes made to the final plan as a result of the consultation. A full schedule of the public submissions is also provided.
Macquarie Island Nature Reserve (87 500 ha) is one of the most valuable reserves in Australia and the world, well recognised for its conservation, geological, ecological and scientific values. The island is part of Tasmania and located about 1 500 km SSE of Tasmania and 1,100 km SW of New Zealand.
It was reserved as a wildlife sanctuary in 1933, largely due to the efforts of Sir Douglas Mawson and became a conservation area in 1971 and a state reserve the subsequent year. In 1977 the area was declared a Biosphere Reserve, and listed on the Register of the National Estate. In 1978, Macquarie Island State Reserve was extended to low-water mark including the offshore islands and formally named Macquarie Island Nature Reserve (Statutory Rules 1978, No. 121).
The reserve was declared a restricted area in 1979 with the result that intending visitors have been required to obtain access authorisation from the managing authority, the Director National Parks and Wildlife.
In December 1997, the reserve and its surrounding waters to 12 nm were inscribed on the World Heritage List as the Macquarie Island World Heritage Area. In 2000 the Macquarie Island Nature Reserve was extended to the limit of state waters, 3 nm from low water mark around the island and outlying islets. The land under the sea,
and all flora and fauna, including fish and marine plants, are completely protected as an
integral part of the terrestrial reserve and therefore are part of the restricted area.
Scientific research, management and long-term monitoring programs conducted over the last 50 years have contributed to knowledge and understanding of the reserve, to knowledge and understanding of global earth processes, and to global monitoring programs. These programs will be allowed to continue providing they cause no long-term adverse impacts on reserve values.
The Macquarie Island Pest Eradication Project is the largest eradication program ever attempted for rabbits, ship rats or mice anywhere in the world and is one of the largest conservation management projects in Tasmania’s history.
Macquarie Island Nature Reserve and World Heritage Area is one of the truly remarkable places on earth, supporting vast congregations of wildlife and numerous species of seabirds.
During the 19th century, seal and penguin oil workers introduced a number of animals to the island to support their operations or as a food source. The impact of rabbits and other rodents on the island’s vegetation and wildlife was first noted in the 1950s. An active feral animal management program has operated on the island since the 1970s, however by the late 1970s, the rabbit population was estimated to be around 350,000.
The Project was approved in 2006 with funding of $24.6 million. It commenced in 2007 and declared successful in April 2014.
Maria Island lies off the south-east coast of Tasmania. It has an area of about 11,550 ha, includes a marine area of 1,878 ha (with four known shipwrecks) and has remnant buildings of the first convict period in Tasmania. The Park was declared a Sanctuary in 1971 for the conservation of endangered animal species and made a National Park in June 1972. The marine extension was included in September 1991.
Ile des Phoques (7.4 ha) is located 18.5 km to the north of Maria Island and was reserved in March 1978.
The geology of Maria Island is of great scientific interest, containing features from many geological ages. The Fossil Cliffs are perhaps the finest example of their kind anywhere in the world.
People have had a long history on Maria Island, from Aboriginal hunter-gatherers through to a period of European exploration, colonisation and industry. Their activities have impacted on the natural environment to create a rich and diverse Aboriginal and historic heritage.
Darlington lies on the north-west tip of Maria Island National Park (situated off the south-east coast of Tasmania) The jetty at Darlington provides the main access point for the Park. The Maria Island National Park Management Plan designates management zones within the Park, including the Darlington Zone. The Darlington area contains the Fossil Cliffs, several species of threatened, vulnerable and endangered flora and fauna (including the forty-spotted pardalote Pardalotus quadragintus and the swift parrot Lathamus discolour) and the historic penal settlement. The Fossil Cliffs are recognised as the best example of lower Permian strata in Tasmania, if not the world and one of 15 highly significant geoheritage sites identified on Maria Island.
The land covered by this plan is part of the Southwest National Park in remote south-west Tasmania. The plan area covers a 3 823 ha section of the national park between Melaleuca and Cox Bight The plan area was first reserved in April 1966 as part of the Southwest Conservation Area. Although the surrounding area became Southwest National Park in 1990, the plan area continued to be a section of the Southwest Conservation Area to allow for the Cox Bight–Melaleuca tin field to remain open for mining and exploration.
After mining formally ceased the area was included in the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area in June 2012. It became part of the Southwest National Park in December 2012. The addition of the plan area to the Southwest National Park provides consistency and management continuity for the whole of the south-west, in particular for the critically endangered orange-bellied parrot (Neophema chrysogaster).
Melaleuca is part of the Southwest National Park. It is a unique area that became part of the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area (TWWHA) in December 2012 following closure of a small-scale mining operation.
Melaleuca is one of Tasmania’s most remote areas and has social and spiritual connections for the Tasmanian Aboriginal people as it is closely associated with their Creation Story.
The region has outstanding examples of major stages of the earth’s evolutionary history and ongoing geological processes. It contains important ecosystems and areas of exceptional natural beauty, as well as important and significant habitats for threatened specials of plants and animals. In particular, its buttongrass moorland is the central breeding area for the critically endangered orange-bellied parrot (Neophema chrysogaster).
Melaleuca is the site of several scientific research and conversation programs connected to the TWWHA. The remanents of the mining operation are recognised as an influential part of the social fabric and historic heritage of the area.
The Melaleuca - Port Davey area is situated in South West Tasmania and covers a region of 608 298 ha. This area includes the developed Melaleuca Visitor Services Site, Melaleuca Lagoon and Melaleuca Inlet, Bathurst Harbour, Bathurst Narrows, Bathurst Channel and Port Davey. It excludes the corridor south of Melaleuca to Cox Bight. The plan area extends landward to 100 metres beyond mean high water mark.
The region crosses both the Southwest National Park and the South West Conservation Area. It was made a Foreshore Scenic Reserve in 1951, with the islands included in 1962 and Melaleuca – Port Davey in 1976.
The area possesses important world heritage and human use values. It is the key breeding zones for the endangered orange-bellied parrot Neophema chrysogaster and some unique marine species. It has great natural beauty and diversity, with creation landscape and living landscape from Aboriginal occupation and historic heritage sites from European occupation.
Located on the slopes of the Great Western Tiers in northern Tasmania, the Mole Creek Karst National Park protects an internationally significant karst system and a number of threatened flora and fauna species including invertebrate cave fauna such as Cockerills cave beetle (Tasmanotrechus cockerilli) and the extremely rare cave false scorpion (Phseudotyrannochthonius typhlus).
The karst system is renowned for its numerous spectacular caves, two of which are developed as show caves and are important local attractions. The majority of the caves are undeveloped and visited primarily by recreational cavers who regard Mole Creek as a mecca for their sport. Surface karst features such as sinkholes, blind valleys and major springs form a conspicuously different landscape to non-karst systems, often presenting unusual challenges for land managers.
The Park was reserved in September 1996 and became a conservation area in August 2000. It covers 1,345 ha over 12 non-contiguous parcels of land, once of which sits within the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area.
Moulting Lagoon Game Reserve is one of ten Ramsar sites (wetlands of international significance) listed in Tasmania and the third Australian listed site.
The reserve supports a large number of waterbirds, particularly black swans and Australian shelducks, at key stages of their lifecycles. It also has the largest Tasmanian flock of greenshank and 13 plant species which have particular importance for conservation because of their threatened status. The region is a site of geoconservation significance and the spit at Nine Mile Beach is one of only two mid-bay spits in Tasmania.
Portions of the estuary had been declared sanctuaries over the years prior to the Ramsar designation. In 1918, all of the lagoon above a line from The Long Point to Breakfast Point was proclaimed a sanctuary for wildfowl under the Crown Lands Act 1911. However, in 1928, when the Animals and Birds Protection Board was formed, there was no provision for the carry over of existing reserves, so the area reverted to uncommitted Crown land. In 1959, an area of approximately 600 ha at the far northern section of the lagoon was declared a wildlife sanctuary under the Animals and Birds Protection Act 1928. A further 13.7 ha at Pelican Bay was declared a conservation area in 1980 under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1970. In 1988 all areas were included into a game reserve covering 4,760 ha.
The game reserve is highly valued for hunting and fishing and the reserve’s continued conservation contributes to the economic and social wellbeing of the local community.
Mount Field National Park (15,881 ha) is one of the most popular protected areas in Tasmania. It was reserved in August 1916 and is the oldest National Park in Tasmania and one of the oldest in Australia.
The Park is located about 75 km from Hobart near the south eastern boundary of the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area. It protects a number of important natural ecosystems, a rich cultural heritage and encompasses a significant water catchment.
Mount Field demonstrates an outstanding altitudinal range of vegetation communities ranging from tall eucalypts to native pines. The lower parts of the park include or adjoin nationally significant karst systems, while the higher parts showcase classic glacial landscapes such as U-shaped valleys, alpine lakes and tarns. The Lake Fenton/Lady Barron Creek drinking water catchment provides nearly 20 per cent of Hobart's water.
The Park is an important recreational and educational resource for the local community and Hobart. The nearby reserves of Marriotts Fall State Reserve and Junee Cave State Reserve are small in area, but protect important scenic and natural values.
Murphys Flat Conservation Area (66.5 ha) is located within a wetland complex on the southern shore of the River Derwent beside the Lyell Highway between Granton and New Norfolk. The area has been recognised as being particularly species rich, with expansive areas of marshes, underwater grasses, tidal flats and reed beds that provide habitat and breeding areas for large populations of fish, platypus and waterfowl.
Murphys Flat became a conservation area by virtue of its acquisition in May 2001 and was formally proclaimed Murphys Flat Conservation Area on 23 December 2009. It comprises 25 to 30 per cent of remaining wetlands in the River Derwent and is listed within both the Directory of Wetlands of National Significance and the Tasmanian Geoconservation Database.
Several features of cultural heritage significance are found in the reserve, including the ruins of the Addington Lodge that was built in 1820 by the Governor Sorell as a summer house but sold just four years later (1984). Renamed the Golden Fleece Inn, it was reputed to be haunted and had an infamous reputation. The flats were the location of one of Australia’s first land reclamations, Lieutenant Governor Arthur’s ‘Marsh Farm’. The reserve was also a travelling route for two Aboriginal tribes.
The Park lies on the central north coast of Tasmania. The Park was created in June 1976 with 3,330 ha and known as the Asbestos Range National Park. Additional land was included in 1978 and 1991 to total 4,348 ha and in July 2000 it was renamed the Narawntapau National Park. Hawley Nature Reserve (49.66 ha) was reserved in August 1995. The reserve is located near Port Sorell.
The scenic natural landscapes of the Park contain intrinsically important environmental values such as several threatened species and excellent examples of coastal heath, scrub and wetland. The North East Arm section of the Park has expansive saltmarsh areas which are listed as a threatened ecological community under Commonwealth legislation. The Park has also many features of scientific and educational interest and contains features of Aboriginal and historic heritage value.
Melaleuca in the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area has long been identified as a site with significant potential for Aboriginal interpretation. In 1995 planning commenced to develop a short loop walk at Melaleuca as a joint project between the Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service and the Tasmanian Aboriginal Land and Sea Council.
The Needwonnee Aboriginal Walk was opened in December 2011. The walk provides an intimate and visual Aboriginal cultural interpretive experience for visitors and an ongoing opportunity for the Aboriginal community to practise relevant cultural traditions in an authentic landscape.
The development of the track is documented in a 10 minute film titled “Needwonnee … connecting and sharing’.
The North East River Game Reserve (2,405 ha) lies on the north east tip of Flinders Island. It consists of a large estuarine system formed by the drainage of the North East River, Arthurs Creek and many associated tributaries. The estuary enters the sea between Holloway Point and Foochow Beach. The Reserve is an important site for birds and contains extensive habitat for the ground parrot Pezoporus wallicus which has suffered a massive reduction in its range throughout South East Australia.
It was made a game reserve in September 1991 at the same time as the contiguous Wingaroo Nature Reserve. The two areas were separately reserved to allow for the continued use of the game reserve for recreational hunting, specifically for duck and pig hunting. However the separate reservations reflected the diversity of plant communities including endangered heathlands, the valuable wetlands, estuarine marshes and relict Callitris rhomboidea scrub-woodland. The type of country included in these two reserves is not currently represented elsewhere in the State’s reserve system.
A Master Plan has been prepared for the Orford Foreshore area to set a framework to assist Council and PWS land managers and the community to better protect highly important shorebird values and to provide for a better recreational experience where appropriate across the Master Plan area.
The Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area (the WHA) includes Cradle Mountain - Lake St Clair National Park. One of the key visitor areas is the Pencil Pine – Cradle Valley Visitor Services Zone a primary access point to the WHA. The zone includes four distinct areas - a visitor centre, Ronny Creek Precinct, Waldheim Precinct and the Dover Lake Precinct.
The region has marked geological contrasts and a diverse mosaic of vegetation communities from rainforest to grassland. It contains a wide range of habitats that are home to diverse fauna species. It has cultural values to the Aboriginal people as well as scientific, educational and recreational importance to the world community.
The original zone plan was implemented in July 1993. A replacement draft was developed in 2002 and some of its recommendations were progressed to completion. This plan brings together further issues from the 2002 draft plan and prescribes specific strategies and actions for the zone.
The Peter Murrell State Reserve (133 ha), the Conservation Area (135 ha) and the Public Reserve (9 ha) are adjoined Reserves located between the suburbs of Kingston, Howden and Blackmans Bay 15 km south of Hobart. The Reserves are a ‘bush island’ bounded by residential properties on the eastern and southern boundaries, with open pasture, a school and a golf course on the western boundary and a light industrial estate in the northwest.
The Reserves represent an important area in terms of natural and cultural heritage, recreational activities and educational values. The Reserves include specified zones for horse riding, tracks for walking, dog walking, fishing and cycling. However, the Reserves also have a high potential for bush fire which is identified as the greatest threat to conservation values in the Reserves and also has potential to threaten surrounding properties.
The objectives of this plan are to reduce the risks posed by bushfire and implement managed fire regimes and practices.
The Pirates Bay Visitor Services Zone is the main location for development of facilities in the Tasman National Park and the most visited reserve location in the Park. It falls under the auspices of the Tasman National Park and Reserves Management Plan 2001.
The Pirates Bay area is one of the most stunning locations in the Tasman peninsula and easily the most accessible. It contains a range of natural and cultural heritage features such as the historic convict sites, a surf beach, the Tasman Arch and Devils Kitchen which have regional, national and international significance. It has biodiversity value as a home to many of Tasmania’s iconic wildlife species and most of the zone is listed on the Register of the National Estate for its outstanding scenic qualities. The zone also contains outstanding sites of geoheritage significance. The Tessellated Pavement is listed on the National Estate as an outstanding example of marine weathering process.
Pirates Bay also has a wide range of visitor activities, including sightseeing, swimming, surfing, fishing and boating, hang-gliding and bush walking.
The Pitt Water Nature Reserve is located on the eastern shore 20 km from Hobart. The Reserve was proclaimed in 1995 (776.0 ha) and extended in 2006 (826.3 ha). Most of the reserve lies within the Pitt Water-Orielton Lagoon Ramsar Site listed in November 1982. It is the only Ramsar site in Tasmania located in an urban area.
The Reserve provides habitat for migratory and resident birds, is an important estuarine ecosystem and an essential nursery for marine life. The reserve has extensive diverse wetlands, providing habitat for a number of species, including some unusual and unique species.
Twenty six bird species are listed on the Japan–Australia Migratory Bird Agreement and 20 species are listed on both the China–Australia Migratory Bird Agreement and the Republic of Korea–Australia Migratory Bird Agreement.
Orielton Lagoon is listed on the East Asian – Australasian Flyway Reserve Network as an important shorebird feeding area and resting site. The Pitt Water-Orielton Lagoon is also listed as a nationally important wetland in A Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia.
In 2009, the Tasmanian fire management agencies, the Tasmania Fire Service, Forestry Tasmania and the Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service, through the Tasmanian Fire Research Fund, conducted a review of planned burning guidelines and methodologies.
Planned burning is the deliberate use of fire under specified conditions for the purposes of fuel management, ecological management, promoting agricultural green pick and weed management. It has an important role in reducing adverse impacts, but is not a panacea for all fire management problems. Planned burning can decrease wildfire risk by reducing fuel hazards, and enhance ecological management by increasing fire regime variability. However, it needs to be performed in conjunction with a wide range of risk management strategies.
The review outlined a number of revised guidelines aimed at minimising the risk of adverse outcomes from planned burning whilst also ensuring that the burning is performed safely and meets fire management objectives.
These guidelines aim to protect the values of this relatively undisturbed wilderness area of the Port Davey Marine Reserve / Melaleuca Visitor Services Site whilst allowing for controlled tourism and recreation access.
The guidelines apply to commercial operators in the Port Davey Marine Reserve, including motorised and non-motorised vessel-based recreation and tourism operations and land tourism operations. (A vessel includes yachts, motorboats, kayaks, dinghies, inflatables and float planes.) Onshore activities, often associated with commercial vessel operations, are also addressed in the guidelines.
The guidelines do not apply to commercial fishing vessels unless involved in providing specific tourism services in the reserve.
A walker-impact monitoring program was undertaken in the Arthur Ranges during the 20 year period 1994 to 2014.
The monitoring program (part of a wider program that encompasses tracks and major routes throughout the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area) is unusual in both its scope and duration, with components monitoring on-track and off-track impacts as well as campsites and visitation. Recreation impact monitoring programs of this scope and length are rare internationally; one of the reasons there are so few rigorous assessments of the effectiveness of recreation-management strategies in natural areas.
This Report describes the findings of the monitoring program and its relationship to implemented management actions and recreational changes that have occurred in the Arthur Ranges during the same period.
The Russell Falls Reserve was established in 1885 to protect the scenery around the falls and is the birthplace of protected areas in Tasmania. It is also one of the oldest reserves in Australia.
In 1916 it became part of the Mount Field National Park which is distinctive amongst Tasmania’s national parks for its combination of history, recognition as an outstanding national park to visit and its proximity to Hobart.
The Russell Falls Visitor Services Zone (280 ha) is subsidiary to the Mount Field National Management Plan 2002. The zone is located at the entrance to the Park and encompasses most of the visitor facilities. It is the highest visited area in the Park.
The area is important and valued because it is highly picturesque, natural and unique, It has a number of scenic waterfalls including Russell Falls, one of Australia’s most famous waterfalls and contains significant cultural heritage the original Belcher’s Track to the ski fields.
Sarah Island was the site of the first convict settlement in Tasmania established in 1821 and abandoned in 1947. It is situated in the southern part of Macquarie Harbour on the West Coast of Tasmania.
The island remained unoccupied and relatively undisturbed until the advent of cruises from Strahan to the Gordon River in the 1980’s made it a popular tourist destination.
This Site Plan is a subsidiary plan to the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area Management Plan 1999.
The island was reserved in February 1926, declared a Scenic Reserve in 1954 and in 1970 proclaimed a Historic Site. In July 1980 it was included as part of the Southwest Conservation Area (retaining its designation as a Historic Site). The island was included in the extension of the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area in 1989 at which time its individual status as a Historic Site was revoked.
Sarah Island was included on the Tasmanian Heritage Register in 2002 and listed on the Register of the National Estate in 2003.
The 12 small Bass Strait island reserves covered by this plan are significant breeding places for seabirds or seals and are highly vulnerable to disturbance by people. Ten of the reserves were proclaimed in the late 1970s and early 1980s on the basis of their value as significant seal or seabird breeding colonies. Of the remaining two islands, Rodondo Island was proclaimed a nature reserve because it is a particularly good example of an undisturbed ecosystem; while Cat Island, proclaimed a wildlife sanctuary in 1953, and now a conservation area, is the exception. It was reserved because of its significance as once being the largest Australasian gannet colony in Australia and for its potential for recolonization.
Low Islets, Foster Islands and Penguin Island are significant as Tasmania's only Australian pelican breeding colonies and, apart from one New Zealand breeding site, are the most southerly in the world.
Ten of Tasmania’s small offshore islands in the north-east region are included in this Plan. Only 4 of them are currently reserved, George’s Rock (2 April 1975), St Helens Island (10 April 1980), Diamond Island (28 December 1977) and Governor Island (18 September 1991).
The islands are significant breeding sanctuaries for a diversity of seabird species and because of their isolation, may also harbour unique or endemic species of flora and fauna that are undergoing evolutionary radiation.
Four islands in the region have evidence of Aboriginal use (either small artefact scatters or shell middens) and whaling stations were located on 2 islands.
Pressures on small islands world-wide, such as fisheries interaction, marine and terrestrial pollution and disturbance to breeding birds and their habitats, contribute to the importance and urgency of conserving these increasingly rare and endangered global natural assets.
Many of Tasmania’s small offshore islands in the south-east region are significant breeding sanctuaries for a diversity of seabird species. Because of their isolation and, in some cases, the absence of mammals, many may also harbour unique or endemic species of flora and fauna that are undergoing evolutionary radiation. Pressures on small islands world-wide, such as fisheries interaction, marine and terrestrial pollution and disturbance to breeding birds and their habitats, highlight the importance and urgency of conserving these global natural assets. Small, isolated, discrete ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to damage and destruction caused by the introduction of feral plant and animal species, fire or direct human disturbance (Salm et. al 2000).
South Bruny National Park lies on the southern tip of Bruny Island off the south east coast of Tasmania, separated from the mainland by the D'Entrecasteaux Channel. Reserved on 11 August 1997, the Park includes the former Labillardiere State Reserve and the Fluted Cape State Reserve. The Labillardiere section of the Park is on the Register of the National Estate. The Cape Bruny lightstation was added in December 2000.
Waterfall Creek State Reserve (on the Register of the National Estate) was proclaimed a Scenic Reserve on 10 January 1919 and a State Reserve in 1970. Green Island Nature Reserve was proclaimed 5 December 1978.
The spectacular natural landscapes of the South Bruny National Park contain intrinsically important environmental values which also underpin the value of the Park for recreation and tourism. The Park’s geology contains features from many geological ages. The vegetation consists of a great diversity of predominantly dry sclerophyll plant communities, heathlands and coastal vegetation and there are geographically significant endemic species and threatened species.
The Southport Lagoon Conservation Area is about 80 km south of Hobart. Originally part of the State Forest, 3,600 ha was proclaimed the Southport Lagoon Wildlife Sanctuary in July 1976, including Southport and Blackswan lagoons and The Images island group. In 1978 it was listed on the Register of the National Estate because of its natural, historic and geoheritage values and on 30 April 1999 the reserve was proclaimed a conservation area of 4 280 ha extending to the low water mark. The Ida Bay Railway, which lies within and outside the boundaries of the State reserve, is on the Tasmanian Heritage Register.
The area is historically and botanically significant as part of a larger type locality from which many of the type specimens of the Australian flora were collected by French and English scientists in the late 18th and early 19th century. The area has important Aboriginal and European cultural heritage values and is extremely significant for conserving endangered, vulnerable and rare plant and animal species.
This report provides a structured, evidence-based account of how management of the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area (TWWHA) is performing in achieving its management objectives and obligations under the World Heritage Convention—to identify, protect, conserve, present, transmit to future generations and, if appropriate, rehabilitate the World Heritage values of the property. The report provides informed feedback that will guide management to better achieve objectives and deliver desired outcomes as well as increasing the transparency of management for the TWWHA.
The focus of the evaluation was on management effectiveness over the decade since the first statutory management plan for the TWWHA was approved in 1992. The evaluation establishes the methodology for evaluating management effectiveness for the TWWHA, allows the progress in management to date to be examined and provides a sound reference set of data against which progress under the 1999 and subsequent management plans can be evaluated in future.
The Report marks a significant step forward in making management of the TWWHA more open, informed, and accountable.
Strzelecki National Park (4216 ha) is located in the south-western corner of Flinders Island in Bass Strait. It was named in honour of the Polish scientist and explorer Count Paul Edmund Strzelecki, who climbed a number of the mountain peaks on Flinders Island in 1842.
The area was made a scenic reserve in 1935 because of its spectacular scenery and wildlife values and a National Park in 1967. It was given the official name of Strzelecki National Park in 1972. The Trousers Point area was added in 1978.
Most of the park is on the Register of the National Estate in recognition of its natural values. Aboriginal midden sites at Trousers Point are also listed on the Register for Cultural Significance. The Park has considerable scientific interest due to the high number of endemic species, rare flora and fauna and significant vegetation communities. It is of biogeographic significance as it contains elements of Tasmanian and Victorian flora.
Located on the Tasman and Forestier Peninsulas in south-eastern Tasmania, Tasman National Park was proclaimed on 30 April 1999.
The Park incorporates the former State Reserves known as Cape Raoul, Cape Pillar, Point Puer – Crescent Bay (part only) and Tasman Arch (part only including the Eaglehawk Neck Historic Site); the Nature Reserves of Tasman Island and Hippolyte Rocks, and the Abel Tasman Forest Reserve.
The entire Tasman Peninsula is listed on the Register of the National Estate for its historical significance. The reserves are also listed for their natural and geoconservation values.
The Park is well renowned for its striking coastal panoramas, including 300 metre high sea cliffs and other spectacular features of geodiversity. The area contains one third of plant species found in Tasmania, including a significant area of eucalypt forest and heathland. The Aboriginal sites and areas in the reserves are particularly diverse and generally well preserved.
The Tasman National Park is managed by the Tasman National Park and Reserves Management Plan 2011. The 2011 Management Plan was affected by the Tasmanian Government’s policy of realising the potential of Tasmania’s natural areas by broadening the range of exciting and unique tourism experiences on offer in our national parks and reserves.
As a result, the 2011 Management Plan was altered by the 2017 Management Plan to remove provisions restricting helicopter landings on Tasman Island and to allow consideration of recreational and tourism access to Tasman Island.
The Tasmanian Reserve Management Code of Practice is a commitment under the Tasmanian Regional Forest Agreement (RFA), to develop and implement a code of practice to cover all environmental practices in reserves.
The Code is seen as an important element in the framework for protecting conservation values encompassed by the Comprehensive, Adequate and Representative reserve system, which was expanded under the RFA to meet agreed reservation targets for wilderness, old growth forest and biodiversity.
The management of the World Heritage Area is governed by the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area Management Plan 2016 (TWWHA) which replaced the 1999 Management Plan in December 2016.
This management plan replaced the TWWA Management Plan 1992.
The management of the World Heritage Area is governed by the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area Management Plan 2016 (TWWHA) which replaced the 1999 Management Plan in December 2016.
This 2002 Plan was a subsidiary plan to the TWWHA Management Plan 1999 and the two plans should be read together.
This plan provided for the construction and operation of an Eco-Tourism Development on a site located on the coast between the mouth of Cockle Creek and Fishers Point. The proposal was initially known as the Planter Beach Eco-Tourism Development but the site is now being referred to as Cockle Creek East.
The Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area (TWWHA) was established to protect, conserve, present and pass on to future generations one of the world's outstanding wilderness areas. The area covers almost a quarter of Tasmania (1.58 million ha) and is one of the largest temperate natural areas in the southern hemisphere.
The area was recognised as a mixed World Heritage property in 1982, through the World Heritage Convention, for its Outstanding Universal Value. The TWWHA encompasses areas of truly exceptional natural beauty and contains biological and geological features of outstanding international significance. It is recognised for the diversity and uniqueness of its flora and fauna and provides habitat for globally significant species. The TWWHA provides examples of outstanding and exceptional cultural heritage, reflecting the long occupation of the area by Tasmanian Aboriginal people stretching back more than 40,000 years.
This plan ensures effective management of the TWWHA. It was endorsed by the Federal Minister for the Environment on 24 November 2016 as required by the 2009 Australian World Heritage Intergovernmental Agreement between the States.
This paper provides a 30 year retrospective on the development of the adaptive management system for the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area (Australia). It describes the historical background, key influences and stages that paved the way to establishment of adaptive management. It outlines how effectiveness monitoring, evaluation and reporting are integrated with the management plan for the Area to establish an ongoing adaptive management cycle.
Chapter 13, presents figures and tools for adaptive management, including 5 useful questions for guiding the integration of effectiveness monitoring, evaluation and reporting into management plans and programs. Strengths and weaknesses of the adaptive management system are discussed. Key lessons and insights distilled from this experience are offered, including the importance of planned monitoring of management effectiveness; the role of stakeholder assessments; and the factors that can assist in sustaining long term strategic programs despite ongoing institutional change. Chapter 13 concludes with suggestions for fostering an enabling environment for adaptive management.
The Nut State Reserve (59.28 ha) encompasses much of the distinctive headland known as Circular Head on the north-west coast of Tasmania, about 80 km west of Burnie. Adjoining the historic town of Stanley, The Nut rises to 143 metres and is almost completely ringed by sheer cliffs falling to the sea. It is the focal point for the regional tourism industry of the region.
The reserve was proclaimed on 18 November 1980 for its value as a scenic landmark. The Nut is also classified as a State Geological Monument by the Geological Society of Australia and listed on the Tasmanian Geoconservation Database as a Site of Geoconservation Significance.
The geology of the reserve is of great scientific interest as it is still unclear whether it is the solidified lava neck of a volcano or a slab of lava at the top of a feeder pipe-like intrusion, or some combination of both. The reserve protects the nationally endangered straw daisy Leucochrysum albicans and provides an important breeding site for short-tailed shearwaters, peregrine falcons, Australian kestrels and little penguins.
The Tasmanian Advantage is a resource manual aimed at developing knowledge and interpretive skills specific to Tasmania. It is aimed at those operating within the ecotourism business in Tasmania. Tasmania is one of the world’s premier travel destinations. Its magnificent natural attractions, rich cultural history and industries such as craft, food and wine combine to draw people to the State. It is not surprising that environmental tourism has become a significant contributor to the State’s economy. Either directly or indirectly, the natural and cultural values of Tasmania impact upon all those involved in the tourism industry in this State. Whether you run a guided walk, a bed and breakfast house, or are employed in the service industry, being able to understand, share and appreciate the natural and cultural attributes of Tasmania are vital aspects of your business.
This paper describes a wilderness-mapping project that has been undertaken by the Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service. Initiated in 2005, the project has so far focussed on the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area (TWWHA) and adjoining wild areas.
The Trevallyn Nature Recreation Area (440 ha) is located on the South Esk River, 4 km from Launceston’s centre and at the head of the Tamar River valley. It features part of the South Esk River gorge and the adjacent plateau country and shares boundaries with the Cataract Gorge Reserve managed by the Launceston City Council.
The area was first reserved as a recreation area in July 1980 and used primarily as a recreation park. In April 1999 it was proclaimed a Conservation Area to protect the significant natural values of the reserve.
The reserve includes dry forest/woodland communities that are poorly protected in Tasmania and, even with its comparatively small size and low public profile, provides habitat for a large number of threatened plant species.
The Reserve’s close proximity to Launceston continues to influence its development and management.
The Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area (TWWHA) is home to globally significant natural and cultural values and was listed as a World Heritage Area by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in order to protect, conserve, present and pass on to future generations one of the world’s outstanding natural areas. The ecosystems of the TWWHA are a product of millennia of active fire management, with records of people using fire as a management tool in the region extending back at least 40,000 years. Active fire management is still required in order to preserve the World Heritage values of the TWWHA.
Track classification schemes are management frameworks for specifying the levels and standards of development and infrastructure that are appropriate on walking tracks. Such schemes typically delineate limits for development – for example specifying acceptable widths for nature trails and high-grade tracks, but may also include criteria such as recommended party sizes or publicity. This policy details the Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Walking Track Classification System, and describes its relationship to other extant track classification schemes, lists the elements of each scheme and clarifies the context in which they are most appropriately used. The policy also clarifies the guidelines for the use of safety barriers on all walking tracks.
The Walls of Jerusalem is a majestic place in the heart of an alpine wilderness located to the east of the Cradle Mountain – Lake St Clair National Park and west and north of the Central Plateau Conservation Area.
It was proclaimed a National Park in 1981 (51 771 ha) and extended in 1989 when it was added to the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area (TWWHA). This plan sits under the TWWHA Management Plan.
The Central Plateau region has significant natural values including flora, fauna (particularly its rich complement of palaeo-endemic and unique species), aquatic fauna and globally significant geoconservation values and wetlands. It is the second-most popular backcountry walking destination in the TWWHA.
The Zone Plan covers 3 283 ha. It is the area of greatest visitation with high conservation values. The area is very scenic and to date, remains relatively pristine despite high use. It is also an ecological refugia in light of potential climate change.
This Site Plan covers proposed works to improve both the Wineglass Bay walker carpark and the track to Wineglass Bay lookout, including a new track head and lookout structure in the Freycinet National Park. It was approved in July 2004.
Wineglass Bay is a critical component of the State’s tourism experience. The principal objectives of the plan were to minimise impacts on site values; provide sufficient additional car parking spaces and fit for purpose facilitates to cater for expected demand over the next 5 years; redevelop the track and provide track improvements to cater for people with a wide range of fitness and skill levels; and to provide appropriate interpretation opportunities.
Work on the track has now concluded.
The Reserve is located in the north of Flinders Island. It was proclaimed a conservation area in 1988 with 202 ha, increasing to 9 144 ha in 1991 when it was proclaimed a Nature Reserve. A further 202 ha of conservation area was attached to the Reserve in 1992.
The reserve protects an extensive area of endangered heathland, including the Mount Boyes – Wingaroo Heaths listed on the Register of the National Estate as having biogeographic significance. It has valuable wetlands, estuarine marshes, relict Oyster Bay pine Callitris rhomboidea and scrub-woodland communities that are of considerable conservation significance. The type of country represented in the reserve is not currently found elsewhere in the Tasmanian reserve system.
As part the North East River catchment and estuary (a significant biological and recreational asset for Flinders Island), the Reserve contributes to the conservation of rare plant and animal species which have their Tasmanian distribution confined to the Furneaux Island Group. As such it has considerable scientific interest and educational potential.
The Reserve is situated in south-east Tasmania, about 45 km east of Hobart.
The property of 377 ha was donated to the Crown by Mr Herbert Ernest Shaw in 1998 and proclaimed a Reserve on 25 June 2001.
Contrasting with the neighbouring land, the Reserve retains an extensive cover of native vegetation that is important for the conservation of rare and threatened species of plants and animals at the local, regional state and national level. It also supports representative examples of vegetation communities now extensively cleared in south-eastern Tasmania. From a wildlife perspective, the diversity of vegetation communities and ecotones provide a broad range of habitat for native birds and animals and constitute an important regional refuge.
The property has cultural significance as it was a working farm and home from 1861 until 2003, providing important information about early farming life in Tasmania. The complex is listed on the Tasmanian Heritage Register.